Rock and Soil Mechanics ›› 2023, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (6): 1837-1848.doi: 10.16285/j.rsm.2022.6053

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Mechanism of liquefaction-induced lateral spreading in liquefiable inclined sites

JIA Ke-min1, XU Cheng-shun1, DU Xiu-li1, ZHANG Xiao-ling1, SONG Jia1, 2, SU Zhuo-lin1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Urban Security and Disaster Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China

    2. School of Civil Engineering, North China University of Technology, Beijing 100144, China

  • Online:2023-06-20 Published:2023-09-12
  • Contact: XU Cheng-shun, female, born in 1977, PhD, Professor, PhD supervisor, research interests: soil dynamics and geotechnical earthquake engineering. E-mail:
  • About author:JIA Ke-min, male, born in 1993, PhD, majoring in liquefaction of saturated sandy soil and seismic resistance of pile foundation.
  • Supported by:
    the General Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (52078016), the National Natural Science Foundation for Outstanding Young Scholars of China (51722801) and the General Program of Beijing Natural Science Foundation (8192012).

Abstract: A numerical model of the liquefaction horizontal free-field shaking table test was developed based on the completed large-scale shaking table test of liquefaction horizontal free field using the OpenSees finite element platform, and the numerical model was verified. Based on this, a free-field numerical model of the overall inclined foundation was established, and the non-cyclic dynamic response of the liquefaction lateral spreading site and the mechanism of liquefaction-induced lateral spreading were discussed. The results show that the established numerical model can effectively simulate the seismic response in liquefiable sites. There was significant relative displacement at the interface between liquefiable loose sand and overlying non-liquefiable layer. In the inclined site, the strain accumulation of saturated sand soil starts from the upper part of the loose sand layer and gradually develops downward. The increase of excess pore water pressure was not completely coupled with the accumulation of non-cyclic strain of the soil. The non-cyclic lateral displacement was controlled by the middle parts of the site. In the process of soil liquefaction, when the shear stress along the sliding surface is less than the initial static shear stress, lateral spreading starts, and the shear stress ratio of the saturated loose sand layer is in the range of 0.04−0.06, which is slightly smaller than the initial static shear stress ratio. In addition, it is found that liquefaction-induced lateral spreading requires a certain site inclination (greater than 0.5º). The lateral displacement of soil conforms to the cosine distribution pattern. With the increase of site inclination, the contribution of liquefiable deep soil to the overall lateral displacement is more significant.

Key words: liquefaction, lateral spreading, free filed, numerical simulation, seismic response, mechanism, shaking table test